What is Ovarian Cyst?
Ovarion cysts are fluid filled sac-like structures in the ovary. The cysts may develop during any stage of the woman’s life.
Generally, ovarian cysts do not have any symptoms. If symptoms are present, they are usually mild. Some of the symptoms include:
- Menstrual irregularities
- Vague pelvic pain and lower back pain
- Occasional pain during sexual intercourse
Problems begin when the ovarian cysts rupture. Chances of ovarian cyst rupture are high in women with polycystic ovaries. If there is bleeding when the cyst ruptures, it is a medical emergency and surgery may be required.
Ovarian cyst rupture is a complication in which the cyst ruptures causing intense pain and internal bleeding in the pelvic region.
Symptoms of ovarian cyst rupture
Intense abdominal pain
A ruptured cyst causes a sharp, sudden, and for some women, a numbing pain in the lower abdominal area. Pain usually occurs on the side of the body where the cyst ruptures.
Ruptured cysts are more likely to happen at the time of the periods. Bleeding from a ruptured ovarian cyst is a frequent and well known complication. If bleeding is significant, however, it could be potentially catastrophic. Corpus luteal cysts, in particular, have highly vascular walls, and this may cause significant bleeding, say researchers.
Abdominal pressure and distention
Cysts take up a lot of space in the abdominal area and pushes the adjoining organs causing the pressure and fullness. Although the pressure reduces a bit after the cyst ruptures, abdominal distention continues since the fluid leaks into the area, causing even more bloating.
- Dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and low grade fever are some of the other common symptoms of ruptured cyst.
Causes of ovarian cyst rupture
Generally, larger ovarian cysts tend to rupture. There could be many causes as to why cysts rupture including:
- Hormonal fluctuations and menstrual cycle are the most common cause of cyst rupture.
- The risk of cysts rupturing increases during pregnancy. Rupture of ovarian cysts due to non-traumatic cause, can be life threatening, especially if it occurs in the later stages of pregnancy.
- Women taking anticoagulants or those with a clotting factor deficiency are also at increased risk of cysts rupture.
- Sexual intercourse: Sometimes, larger cysts can burst or start leaking during or right after intercourse. This is one of the most common causes of cyst rupture.
- Constipation: Straining for a bowel movement puts pressure on the cyst and it may rupture.
- Sudden movement while exercising, playing a sport, and even bending down to pick up objects can cause the cyst to rupture.
Many other conditions can show symptoms of ruptured ovarian cysts. These include:
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Internal bleeding, such as from haemorrhaging liver or spleen
Although no treatment is usually required if the ovarian cyst ruptures, pain medication is sometimes prescribed to alleviate the discomfort.